We continue withe our valentine's special, forget those flowers, mushrooms show you are the fungi to be with (groan)....who says i'm not romantic? this is part 2 from Andre Jaeger, of our guest blog. Chlorophyllum molybdites, The False Parasol, Green-Spored Lepiota, or Vomiter, has long been known to be an enormous mistake by mushroom collectors of the world. Blog Picture 3
Too often it looks like other edible species, C. rhacodes say, but alas it is not edible, unless very carefully cooked for a long time at high temperature.
Studies have shown that the toxin is water soluble and is thermolabile when heated for 30 minutes at 70°C. The toxin can be found in all stages of the fruiting body and in each part of the fruiting body, the concentration being higher in the cap rather than stem, gills and spores. When eaten raw C. molybdites produces very severe symptoms, mainly of a gastrointestinal nature, within a couple of hours. Laboratory studies show that it will affect; humans, dogs, chickens, and mice. The first significant research on this toxicity was produced in "Partial purification of the toxin, a thermo-labile, high molecular weight protein which showed an adverse effect when given by intraperitoneal injection into laboratory animals" (Toxicon Volume 12 Issue 6, 1974, Pages 557–563.). Further research examined the internal bleeding aspects by finding the mechanism to which gastrointestinal bleeding occurred, disseminated intravascular coagulation, "Mechanism of gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a case of mushroom poisoning by Chlorophyllum molybdites" (Toxicon Volume 19, Issue 1, 1981, Pages 179-180).
Symptoms often include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of fluids and electrolytes. Additional symptoms such as dizziness, chills, abdominal pain, and cold sweats, can sometimes be observed. In severe cases, these symptoms can result in hypotension and hypovolemic shock - our word for today!.........(a condition where the body goes into shock due to loss of blood or fluids) and gastrointestinal bleeding. Symptoms can last from 4 hours to up to 7 days, depending on the amount of toxin ingested and the severity of poisoning. Most patients recover within 24 hours with longer recovery time for patients who experience dehydration and hypovolemic shock. Differences in the toxicity and of tolerances to the toxin of C. molybdites have been observed from case to case, suggesting other factors may influence both the amount of toxin in the fruiting body and the susceptibility of the individual who consumed the fruiting body. The final clue to the toxin came from a recent work of 2012 by Japanese scientists that revealed the toxin is an enzyme, an aspzincin (zinc endopeptidase), a member of the deuterolysin family of zinc proteases, named Molybdophyllysin. (Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Volume 20, Issue 22, 15 November 2012, Pages 6583-6588).
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What was the conclusion from all this ? Almost lost the plot ... Ah, yes I recall. Not one for the hotpot!